Albert Einstein.

Einstein1921
Einstein1921

Born in 1879, Ulm Germany, Albert Einstein was to become the most celebrated scientist of the twentieth Century. His theories were to lay the framework for new branches of physics. He also become well known as a humanitarian, speaking out against nuclear weapons – weapons he had indirectly contributed towards creating.

Einstein is one of the indisputed genius’ of the twentieth century, but, his early academic reports suggested anything but a glittering career in academia. His early teachers found him dim and slow to learn. Part of the problem was that Albert expressed no interest in learning languages and learning by rote that was popular at the time.

However, at the age of 12, he picked up a book on geometry and read it cover to cover. – He would later refer to it as his ‘holy booklet’. He became fascinated by maths and taught himself maths and became acquainted with the great scientific discoveries of the age.

Around this time, his father’s family business failed and so the family moved to Milan, Italy. Despite Albert’s fascination with maths, he still languished at school. Eventually he was asked to leave by the school because his indifference was setting a bad example to other students.

On leaving school he decided to become a maths teacher to help support him in his studies of maths and physics.

He applied for admission to the Federal institute of Technology in Zurich. His first attempt was a failure because he failed exams in botany, zoology and languages. However, he passed the next year and in 1900 became a Swizz citizen. He married Mileva Marec, they had two sons before divorcing several years later.

Albert Einstein’s Scientific Contributions

Quantum Theory.

Einstein suggested that light doesn’t just travel as waves but as electric currents. This photoelectric effect could force metals to release tiny stream of particles known as ‘quanta’. From this Quantum Theory, other inventors were able to develop devices such as television and movies. He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1921

Special Theory of Relativity

This theory was written in a simple style with no footnotes or academic references. The core of his theory of relativity is that

“Movement can only be detected and measured as relative movement; the change of position of one body in respect to another.”

Thus there is no fixed absolute standard of comparison for judging the motion of the earth or plants. It was revolutionary because previously people had thought time and distance are absolutes. But, Einstein proved this not to be true.

He also said that if electrons travelled at close to the speed of light, their weight would increase

This lead to Einstein’s famous equation

E= mc2

Where E = energy . m = mass and c = speed of light.

General Theory of Relativity 1916

Working from basis of special relativity. Einstein sought to express all physical laws using equations based on mathematical equations.

He devoted the last period of his life trying to formulate a final unified field theory which included a rational explanation for electromagnetism. However, he was to be frustrated in searching for this final break through theory.

As a German Jew, Einstein was threatend by the rise of the Nazi party. In 1933, when the Nazi’s seized power, they confiscated Einstein’s property and Einstein (then in England) took an offer to go to Princeton university in the US.

Once in the US, Einstein dedicated himself to a strict discipline of academic study. He would spend no time on maintaining his dress and image. He considered these things ‘inessential’ and meant less time for his study.

Einstein professed belief in a God “Who reveals himself in the harmony of all being”. But, he followed no established religion.

Politics of Einstein.

Einstein described himself as a Zionist Socialist. He did support the state of Israel, but, became concerned about the narrow nationalism of the new state. In 1952, he was offered the position as President of Israel, but, he declined saying he had:

“neither the natural ability nor the experience to deal with human beings.” … “I am deeply moved by the offer from our State of Israel, and at once saddened and ashamed that I cannot accept it. ”

Albert Einstein was involved in many civil rights movements such as the American campaign to end lynching

On the outbreak of war in 1939, Einstein wrote to President Roosevelt about the prospect of atomic bomb. He warned Roosevelt the Germans were working on it. Roosevelt headed his advice and started the Manhatten project. But, after the war ended, Einstein reverted to his pacifist views.

He was scrutinised closely in the McCarthyite era for potential Communist links. He wrote article in favour of Socialism, criticised Capitalism and criticised the arms race. Einstein remarked:

“I do not know how the third World War will be fought, but I can tell you what they will use in the Fourth—rocks!”

Einstein died in 1955, at his request his brain and vital organs were removed for scientific study.

Brand Positioning – Concept Defined.

Brands
Brands

Brand Positioning Concept Defined.

Brand positioning refers to “target consumer’s” reason to buy your brand in preference to others. It is ensures that all brand activity has a common aim; is guided, directed and delivered by the brand’s benefits/reasons to buy; and it focusses at all points of contact with the consumer.

Brand positioning must make sure that:

  • Is it unique/distinctive vs. competitors ?
  • Is it significant and encouraging to the niche market ?
  • Is it appropriate to all major geographic markets and businesses ?
  • Is the proposition validated with unique, appropriate and original products ?
  • Is it sustainable – can it be delivered constantly across all points of contact with the consumer ?
  • Is it helpful for organization to achieve its financial goals ?
  • Is it able to support and boost up the organization ?

In order to create a distinctive place in the market, a niche market has to be carefully chosen and a differential advantage must be created in their mind. Brand positioning is a medium through which an organization can portray it’s customers what it wants to achieve for them and what it wants to mean to them. Brand positioning forms customer’s views and opinions.

Brand Positioning can be defined as an activity of creating a brand offer in such a manner that it occupies a distinctive place and value in the target customer’s mind. For instance-Kotak Mahindra positions itself in the customer’s mind as one entity- “Kotak ”- which can provide customized and one-stop solution for all their financial services needs. It has an unaided top of mind recall. It intends to stay with the proposition of “Think Investments, Think Kotak”. The positioning you choose for your brand will be influenced by the competitive stance you want to adopt.

Brand Positioning involves identifying and determining points of similarity and difference to ascertain the right brand identity and to create a proper brand image. Brand Positioning is the key of marketing strategy. A strong brand positioning directs marketing strategy by explaining the brand details, the uniqueness of brand and it’s similarity with the competitive brands, as well as the reasons for buying and using that specific brand. Positioning is the base for developing and increasing the required knowledge and perceptions of the customers. It is the single feature that sets your service apart from your competitors. For instance- Kingfisher stands for youth and excitement. It represents brand in full flight.

There are various positioning errors, such as-

  1. Under positioning- This is a scenario in which the customer’s have a blurred and unclear idea of the brand.
  2. Over positioning- This is a scenario in which the customers have too limited a awareness of the brand.
  3. Confused positioning- This is a scenario in which the customers have a confused opinion of the brand.
  4. Double Positioning- This is a scenario in which customers do not accept the claims of a brand.

Brand Positioning Strategies.

A product can be positioned based on 2 main platforms: The Consumer and The Competitor. When the positioning is on the basis of CONSUMER, the campaigns and messages are always targeted to the consumer himself (the user of the product)

Peter England always campaigns their product concentrating on the consumer, the user of its product.

Louis Philip also concentrates on this kind of campaigns.

The other kind of positioning is on basis of COMPETITION. These campaigns are targeted towards competing with other players in the market.

Dettol television commercials always concentrate on advertisements, which show that this product would give you more protection, then the others.

A number of positioning strategies might be employed in developing a promotional program. The 7 such strategies are discussed below:

POSITIONING BY PRODUCT ATTRIBUTES AND BENEFITS

Associating a product with an attribute, a product feature or a consumer feature. Sometimes a product can be positioned in terms of two or more attributes simultaneously. The price/ quality attribute dimension is commonly used for positioning the products.

A common approach is setting the brand apart from competitors on the basis of the specific characteristics or benefits offered. Sometimes a product may be positioned on more than one product benefit. Marketers attempt to identify salient attributes (those that are important to consumers and are the basis for making a purchase decision)

  • Consider the example of Ariel that offers a specific benefit of cleaning even the dirtiest of clothes because of the micro cleaning system in the product.
  • Colgate offers benefits of preventing cavity and fresh breath.
  • Promise, Balsara’s toothpaste, could break Colgate’s stronghold by being the first to claim that it contained clove, which differentiated it from the leader.
  • Nirma offered the benefit of low price over Hindustan Lever’s Surf to become a success.
  • Maruti Suzuki offers benefits of maximum fuel efficiency and safety over its competitors. This strategy helped it to get 60% of the Indian automobile market.

POSITIONING BY PRICE/ QUALITY

Marketers often use price/ quality characteristics to position their brands. One way they do it is with ads that reflect the image of a high-quality brand where cost, while not irrelevant, is considered secondary to the quality benefits derived from using the brand. Premium brands positioned at the high end of the market use this approach to positioning.
Another way to use price/ quality characteristics for positioning is to focus on the quality or value offered by the brand at a very competitive price. Although price is an important consideration, the product quality must be comparable to, or even better than, competing brands for the positioning strategy to be effective.

Parle Bisleri – “Bada Bisleri, same price” ad campaign.

POSITIONING BY USE OR APPLICATION
Another way is to communicate a specific image or position for a brand is to associate it with a specific use or application.

Surf Excel is positioned as stain remover ‘ Surf Excel hena!’

Also, Clinic All Clear – “Dare to wear Black”.

POSITIONING BY PRODUCT CLASS

Often the competition for a particular product comes from outside the product class. For example, airlines know that while they compete with other airlines, trains and buses are also viable alternatives. Manufacturers of music CDs must compete with the cassettes industry. The product is positioned against others that, while not exactly the same, provide the same class of benefits.

POSITIONING BY PRODUCT USER

Positioning a product by associating it with a particular user or group of users is yet another approach.

Motography Motorola Mobile Ad.n this ad the persona of the user of the product is been positioned.

POSITIONING BY COMPETITOR

Competitors may be as important to positioning strategy as a firm’s own product or services. In today’s market, an effective positioning strategy for a product or brand may focus on specific competitors. This approach is similar to positioning by product class, although in this case the competition is within the same product category.

Onida was positioned against the giants in the television industry through this strategy, ONIDA colour TV was launched with the message that all others were clones and only Onida was the leader. “neighbour’s Envy, Owners Pride”.

POSITIONING BY CULTURAL SYMBOLS

An additional positioning strategy where in the cultural symbols are used to differentiate the brands. Examples would be Humara Bajaj, Tata Tea, Ronald McDonald. Each of these symbols has successfully differentiated the product it represents from competitors.

A Video Of Brand Positioning.